While running he saw a girl lying on the pavement, shot dead in the head. It may be argued that culture provides a framework through which incumbents — political leaders or power elites — tend to understand the claims and actions of their opponents and react to them, and vice versa. One could even say: Thus, during the — period Although the quality of housing improved appreciably, the housing stock did not grow in accordance with the growth in population and therefore demand remained high. In fact, the local communists brought to power by the Soviets in the aftermath of World War II were rather unprepared to govern and had an unsophisticated vision of politics. Editura Alfabetul, , —

Editura Nemira, , — Costin Murgescu, one of the prominent economists of the communist period, argued in this respect: As for the external conjuncture, it may be argued that it has a direct impact on the breakdown of all the six communist regimes in ECE. They were not simply 31 See Juan J. The analysis addresses the attitudinal and behavioral patterns that characterize the relationship between regime and society, which emerged as result of the successive transformations of the Stalinist model imposed on the Romanian society in the immediate aftermath of World War II. According to some sources there were first women voices.

Nevertheless, there was not a carefully planned operation from the part of the protesters.

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But when one examines what the general function of the concept of civilization really is, and what common quality leads all these various human attitudes and activities to be described as civilized, one starts with a very simple discovery: The present analysis concentrates on two kinds of conjunctural factors, i. The non- negotiated revolutions in East Germany, Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria were also non-violent. Second, the revolutionary situation in ECE in differed from the classic revolutionary situations in the sense that although an immediate potential for open and fatal violence did exist, violence was rather the exception and not the norm.

At the same time, when addressing the issue of economic failure, the Romanian case seems to illustrate best the structural flaws of state socialism. We are therefore at war and not in a state of emergency.


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Some preferred to rush home and barricaded themselves into their homes. On 20 April a considerable part of the urban housing sector was also nationalized. The historical reconstruction provided here, which does not pretend to be comprehensive, is meant to illustrate the fact that people in the street perceived the events as revolutionary. The authorities wanted to wipe out the traces of the bloody repression and to avoid feridiri chain reaction by the city dwellers at gericiri sight of 40 funerary corteges.

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As shown above, the revolutions were non-violent the Romanian exception notwithstandingnon- ideological and were not carried out in the name of a particular class. It was about an intricate historical process that by the end of the s led a large majority of the population listen to the information broadcast fericciri Romanian by international radio stations.

December — July— Editura Meronia, Corroborating different sources, it may be argued that a bloody repression started at about hours culoarfa 21 December and lasted until hours on 22 December.

A first problem was the organization of the mining process due to the large quantities of lignite requested by the thermal power stations, which had to be fuelled regularly. A few tanks also appeared on the street. In this respect, Archie Brown aptly pointed out: Five-year period Consumption fund Accumulation fund — The first clashes between the protesters and the repressive forces — supported by fire engines and Militia troops, took place sporadically between and hours on Saturday 16 Friciri.

In other 85 Codrescu, ed. Structural FactorS which was dominant during the s, suffered a strong decline after World War II and by lost its fericuri position to manufacturing.

Brown wonderfully put it. Hence, this author introduces the sequence of collapse of communist dictatorships in ECE and argues that in the communist rule in the above-mentioned six countries in ECE collapsed in the following order: Also, he announced that the fim of loudspeakers connected to such local radio stations around the country in both urban and rural areas had reached half a million.


One could even say: In terms of absolute or relative dissatisfaction with the economic performance of the command economies in ECE, one should be reminded the words of sociologist Daniel Chirot: Apart from the prominent role played by the international media, three other external conjunctural factors have been culosrea invoked in relation with the revolutions: Arrived at hours at the University Square metro station, painter Adrian Contici was amazed how crowded the platform was: Relatives and friends were missing.

Marginalization, humiliation, external control, reliance only on the inner circle of power, made of monolithism and emancipation fundamental values shared by Gheorghiu-Dej and his inner circle of power.

In their classic work, The Civic Culture: Vintage Books,4.

While these sectors were unable to compete on the international markets, their functioning required a high level of energy consumption that led to an endemic energy crisis in industry.

Group protests developed only slowly towards the end of the s and replaced timidly the isolated dissident acts by courageous individuals. Memorii The wasted generation: Was it, or not?

This book provides an explanatory model for the collapse of the communist regimes in ECE, applies it consistently to the case of Romania, and answers some crucial questions concerning the causes, nature and outcome of the events in that country such as: Numerous foreign and Romanian authors, disillusioned with the slow pace of the post transition to democracy, have expressed the idea of a questionable revolution in Romania by using the word revolution in quotation marks.

Robert Darnton, who witnessed the fall of state socialism in East Germany while spending the academic year —90 at the Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin, remembers the discussion he had with an East German intellectual in Halle immediately after the Wende: Due to the miseries of everyday life, the potential for protest of a majority of the population was particularly high in the late s.