This projection also demonstrates anterior and posterior dislocations of the glenohumeral joint. So using the anode-heel-effect and increasing the kVp will result in a more penetrated image that will meet the diagnostic criteria. We see the shoulder is raised as in guarding to reduce pain. The anterior structures should be presented up and the acromion or posterior structures on this film should be hung down. Describe the use of the anode-heel effect when imaging the femur and tibia. Aug 26, Rating: The purpose for using the heel effect is to get uniform density at both ends of the leg. Of course you may have to repeat the radiograph later when anatomical positioning is possible and safe to pursue.

This AP view demonstrates external rotation of the humeral head profiling the greater tubercle laterally yellow arrow. With the type of injury seen here, the lateral margins of the ribs should be better penetrated to evaluate them for possible fracture. State the diagnostic criteria for the craniocaudal projection of the shoulder. What is good about this radiographic is the exposure shows good bone penetration and soft tissue detail. Posterior dislocations of the humeral head are particularly difficult to diagnose from the AP views. A compensatory increase in the mAs when using a grid is required. Therefore, the ankle should be included since the leg pain could originate from the ankle.

This amount of over exposure is unacceptable and should not occur routinely. This is xllocine good AP view of the knee. Combining imaging skills with patient skills is truly an artful use of scientific principles and people skills. The humerus remains in its immobilized position during imaging unless instructions are received from the orthopedic surgeon. Always mark the site of a penetrating injury such as a laceration or foreign body entry.

Radiographic Film Critique of the Lower Extremity:

Positioning of the elbow appears to have correct alignment with the epicondyles perpendicular to the film. It is especially noticeable with obese and muscular patients. Does this radiograph meet the allocinee criteria for the lateral patella view? This is a postoperative radiograph so extremiyies the humerus as in internal alllocine external rotation views is contraindicated. Acute flexion of the knee should not be performed until a fractured patella has been ruled out by other projections, such as the lateral knee view.


The anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments are located within the center of the knee joint. Here is an example of doing everything right to make a good radiograph and one thing prevents it from meeting the diagnostic criteria. Abduction of 45 degrees would require a CR angle of approximately 20 degrees.

An underpenetrated radiograph can be corrected by increasing the kVp. By year it is estimated that we will see somehip fractures annually. Mother at Police Station Michael Hennessy Although most injuries of the knee are ligamentous and radiological findings absent or subtle even when present, radiographs are essential.

Keep in mind that joint effusion is best diagnosed when the extremitiess is flexed no more than 20 degrees.

Extremities () – IMDb

Some patients are only able to abduct the arm to about 45 degrees due to pain or fracture. So most textbooks do not specify the field of view for imaging for routine vs.

This will align zllocine anterior and posterior surfaces of extremitles femoral condyles. Positioning is excellent; the knee is not rotated and the patellofemoral joint space is demonstrated. This radiograph does not need to be repeated.

For example a radiograph that is positioned correctly and has the specified anatomy presented must also have optimal exposure technique to get the aallocine diagnostic value. This radiograph demonstrates very poor collimation. Views Read Edit View history. As we have stated, the coracoid process is on the anterior portion of the scapula within the superior border, and the acromion process is on the posterior aspect of the scapula being the lateral extension of the scapular spine.

We can see the femorotibial joint space and intercondylar eminence. The space between the femur and tibial prosthetic articulations are opened, which must be demonstrated on both the AP and lateral views of the knee.


The function of the meniscus is to provide shock absorption to the knee during the stress of weight bearing and movement.

On an accurately positioned radiograph the femorotibial joint is centered and well collimated. Allocinw all of the images don’t load, click the re-load button on your browser to continue loading the remaining images. It should be noted that the ACL lies within an intra-articular compartment of the knee joint, but is extrasynovial.

If you are not registered, you must register before you can take the test. The Holmbald projection should demonstrate the relationship of the femoral and tibial condyles, the eipcondyles of the femur are profiled, and the intercondylar eminences folm an opened femorotibial joint displayed.

Because the fibular head is less than 1 cm distal to the tibial plateau it indicates the tube angle is too caudal. The fovea capitis femoris is the point of attachment for the ligamentum teres, which attaches the femur to the acetabulum.

Iflm relationship of the coracoid base to the glenoid process must be seen in order to properly evaluate the shoulder using this view. If you prefer to pay or extrrmities your certificate later we will store your completion information.

The reason this radiograph should be repeated is to demonstrate an open patellofemoral joint space. This AP knee projection was taken on a patient who suffered severe trauma during a sporting event. The AP projection is a modification of the standard Holmbald view, which is taken with the patient prone. This of course would mean more exposure to the patient.